The Wounded Knee massacre took place in December 29, 1890 near Wounded Knee creek which is known in Lakota as canke Opi Wakpala. This is a conflict which saw the American 7th Calvary troops exchange fire with Lakota warriors at the present day Wounded Knee creek. There is mass grave of the dead after the battle in the Wounded Knee creek which left 150 Lakota and 31 soldiers dead and 50 Lakota and 31 soldiers injured. A church was built on the hill behind the mass grave in which the victims had been buried. In 1903, descendants of those who died in the massacre erected a monument at the gravesite.
The main contents of the article massacre are divided according to the various events leading to the Wounded Knee massacre, the massacre itself and the aftermath. The article provides a prelude which indicates that in the earlier years (before the massacre), the United States had forced the Lakota into agreeing to let go their lands. This shows that the conflict did not start at the disarmament process but there were other long term causes. The stifling of the Lakota by the United States led made them part with most of their cultures. It even threatened extinction of most native Sioux animas such as the bison and their other native species.
The article outlines the main stages of the massacre which was sparked off by the refusal of a man known as Black Coyote who was claimed to deaf. He refused to give up the weapon claiming he had paid a lot for it. The article also goes further to explain what happened after the massacre. However, there is more about the Wounded Knee creek aftermath and the United States long term contribution to the massacre that are not included in the article. The article may not be satisfying since it does not provide all the information about the massacre but on the other hand the article offers a well researched on information hence providing almost sufficient information about the massacre. The information in the article is organized as follows: The prelude, the massacre itself and the aftermath. The article also provides eyewitness accounts.
Compared to Buffy S. Marie, (1970) bury my heart at the Wounded Knee; the Wikipedia article, Wounded Knee massacre does not give a well explained scenario concerning the Ghost shirt religion started by Wovoka. The article only explains that the people turned to the religion because of the pressure from the United States. Buffy S. Marie gives ultimate explanations about the religion and the tension it caused to the United States. By August of 1890, the United States government was fearful that the Ghost Dance was actually a war dance. The U.S believed that with time the dancers will soon rise in resentment. By the month November, the War Department sent troops to occupy the Lakota camps. At this point the United States government was fully convinced that the dancers were preparing to do battle against the government. But in real sense, the Indians were preparing themselves to defend their rights to continue performing the sacred ceremonies.
Compared to Philip S. Hall, to have this land, the Wikipedia, Wounded Knee massacre article also does not give a detailed explanation about the aftermath of the massacre. This is because the book gives an account where a struggle existed in 1973 about the occupation of the Wounded Knee site this struggle is referred to as the second siege of the Wounded Knee. However, there is similar information between the book and the article; this is because both have quoted an eyewitness statement. It was a statement by Black Elk a medicine man, who said “I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream . . . . The nation's hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead.”
The immediate cause of the conflict is consistent throughout many sources. According to Buffy S. Marie, (1970) bury my heart at the Wounded Knee, the troopers surrounded Spotted Elk's encampment and set up four rapid fires. At daybreak on December 29, 1890, Colonel Forsyth ordered the surrender of weapons and the immediate removal and transportation of the Indians from the place of war to awaiting trains, the main cause is believed to be, a medicine man named Yellow Bird began to perform the Ghost Dance, giving assurance to the Lakota that the ghost shirts were bullet proof. At this point tension kept rising Black Coyote a Lakota Sioux refused to give up his rifle. Another Indian said: "Black Coyote is deaf." Black Coyote refused to give up his rifle claiming to have paid a lot for it. When the soldier refused to heed his warning, he said "Stop! He cannot hear your orders!” At that moment, two soldiers seized Black Coyote from behind, and in the struggle his riffle is alleged to have discharged. At the same moment Yellow Bird threw some dust into the air, and five young Lakota men with concealed weapons threw aside their blankets and fired their rifles at Troop K of the 7t Calvary. The article also points the cause of the conflict to this event.
Even though most the sources point the reason of the conflict towards Black Coyote’s refusal to give up his weapon, there is the fact that the medicine man (Yellow Bird) kept proclaiming that the ghost shirts were bullet proof. This could have motivated the Lakota warriors to keep fighting since they believed fully in the Ghost religion and they were also sure that someday the messiahs will return. In the Massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890 an online article, Black Coyote was not deaf but there was the fact he could not speak English. This fact contradicts with the other sources such as Dee Brown, (1970) bury my heart at the Wounded Knee and Yenne Bill and Susan Garratt, (1994) North American Indians and also the Wikipedia article which claim that Black Coyote was deaf.
There are many sources giving details about the Wounded Knee massacre. There are a variety of different sources. There are several coinciding sources but they are all second hand information. The Wikipedia articles provide first hand information because it provides footages of photos and first hand videos which show the events of the massacre. The article also goes down to display eyewitnesses’ statements. The Wikipedia article has been not written with reference also from Henretta, (1865) America’s History which is a reliable source of American history but all in all the book provides almost the same information as the article
The only available firsthand sources are the video and the picture footages of the Wounded Knee creek; this is because most of the articles have been edited in order to stay in sync with times. The credibility of Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890 an online article, can be of low quality, this is because it does not coincide with most issues present in other sources on the fact that Black Coyote was not deaf but did not speak English.
There are debates in the comments area concerning the Wounded Knee massacre. The main debates surrounding this is the inclusion of a sentence in the Wikipedia article which stated that the united state congress does not keep its promises not then but even until now. The question is, was it important to include this comment in the article and is the comment true? This is a very sensitive issue because it puts the credibility of the American government in question this is a very sensitive issue and such piece of information should both have been included.
Most articles are open to the public for editing; therefore people are at the liberty of editing the articles. This means that even people with very little knowledge about a particular subject to give their own opinions, this makes the reliability of such articles questionable. However, this article contains very reliable information because it includes analysis from various sources which are very credible from what I can tell; any issues that a person may find with it that it could give even more information such as the events that took place after the massacre and even the long term causes of the massacre.
The most surprising issue is the public opinion concerning facts in the article. People concerned would like the exclusion of facts implicating the government simply because it stood a chance of putting the credibility of the government in question. Concerning the history of the wounded knee, this article provides more details and sufficient information about the massacre.
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